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Adjectives help us to mark out the necessary item from many resemble ones. For instance if you want to ask someone to give a pencil you can say: “Give me a pencil, please. – “Which one?” – “The red one”.

 

So, from many pencils of the same type you can choose the one you need if you use adjective.

 

Our speech without adjectives would be like a picture that is painted with grey paints. Adjectives let us convey the beauty, brightness, diversity of things that surround us, make our speech expressive and accurate.

 

In Russian language adjectives have gender, number and case. Initial form of adjective is of nominative case, masculine, and singular.

 

Remember!

 

If you have the noun of masculine, you should use the adjective of masculine as well. If noun has the form of plural, it means that the adjective has the form of plural too.

 

Цветок голубой (blue flower) – цветы голубые (blue flowers)

Небо голубое (blue sky) – небеса голубые (blue skies)

 

There are three categories of adjectives by value: qualitative, relative, and possessive adjectives.

 

Qualitative adjectives call signs that identify different qualities of an item: by size (big, small), by age (young, old), by colour (red, black), by weight (light, heavy), by appearance (beautiful, tall), by character (clever, kind, lazy), and so on.

 

Relative adjectives designate the material the thing is made of (wooden house, glass wall), indicate the sign of an item about the place (Moscow squares), about the time (winter day, evening concert), about the purpose of an item (sports footwear).

 

Possessive adjectives designate the possess of a thing to a person or an animal (mother’s letter, father’s house, wolf’s track, dog’s house)

Degrees of comparison

Only qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison: comparative and superlative.

 

There is now strict rule of comparative degree formation like in English language. It is better to remember all forms of adjectives to know how to use them.

 

Comparative degree in Russian language shows that a sign of one item is evident in greater or smaller degree than of the other one.

Высокий – выше (tall – taller)

Узкий – ýже (narrow – narrower)

Хороший – лучше (good – better)

Comparative degree can be simple and compound. Simple degree can be formed with the help of suffixes:

-ее (-ей): удобный – удóбнее, красивый – красѝвее;

: большой – больше; молодой – молóже;

-ше: старый – старше.

 

Compound comparative degree can be formed with words более и менее. Compound form can be changed by genders, numbers, and cases.

 

For example: более громкий голос, более громкое пение, более громкая песня, более громкие звуки.

Adjective

Comparative degree

Adjective

Superlative degree

удобный

громкий

красивый

удобнее

громче

красивее

более / менее удобный

более / менее громкий

более / менее красивый

удобный

громкий

красивый

удобнейший

громчайший

красивейший

наименее удобный

наиболее громкий

самый красивый

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Adjective

Superlative degree can be also simple and compound. Simple superlative degree can be formed with suffixes –ейш- or –айш-: спокойный – спокойнейший, мягкий – мягчайший.

 

Compound degree can be formed with words самый, наиболее, наименее: самый спокойный, наиболее спокойный, наименее спокойный

 

Adjectives in superlative degree can be changed by genders, numbers, and cases.

⟹ IMPORTANT

 

You should write two Russian «н» (нн):

1) In adjectives that are formed with suffix «н» from nouns that are ended with «н»: сон – сонный, конь – конный, весна – весенний;

2) In adjectives that are formed with suffixes -онн-, -енн-: солома – соломенный, экскурсия – экскурсионный.

 

Exception: ветреный

 

3) In short adjectives that are formed from full ones which have two «н»: длинная дорога – дорога длинна; торжественная речь – речь торжественна.

 

You should write one Russian «н»:

1) In adjectives that are formed with suffix «ин»: гусь – гусиный, лебедь – лебединый;

2) In adjectives that are formed with suffixes -ан-, -ян-: кожа – кожаный, серебро – серебряный.

 

Exception: стеклянный, оловянный, деревянный.

 

3) In adjectives that don’t have suffix: юный садовод, румяное лицо

 

⟹ IMPORTANT

 

Russian «не» with adjectives is written as a solid word:

 

1) If the word is not used without Russian «не»: невзрачный – plain, небрежный – careless;

2) If the word with «не» can be replaced with close by value word without «не»: нездоровый – больной, невежливый – грубый.

 

Russian «не» with adjectives is written as a separate word if there is or means opposition in the sentence: Путь был не легким, а трудным и долгим. Это не серебристая ель.

Simple

Simple

Compound

Compound

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